The Indian financial system has four basic components like Financial Market, Financial Institutions, Financial Services, Financial Instruments. All these play an important role for smoothing of activities for the transfer of the funds and allocation. The main function the Indian financial system is to provide the efficient services to the capital market. The Indian capital market has been increasing tremendously since the second generation reforms. The first generation reforms started in 1991 the concept of LPG. (Liberalization, Privatization, & Globalization)
Then after 1997 second generation reforms was started, still the it’s going on, it includes reforms of industrial investment, reforms of fiscal policy, reforms of ex- imp policy, reforms of public sector, reforms of financial sector, reforms of foreign investment through the institutional investors, reforms banking sectors. The economic development model adopted by India in the post independence era has been characterized by mixed economy with the public sector playing a dominating role and the activities in private industrial sector control measures emaciated form time to time. The last two decades have been a phenomenal expansion in the geographical coverage and the financial spread of our financial system.
The spared of the banking system has been a major factor in promoting financial intermediation in the economy and in the growth of financial savings with progressive liberalization of economic policies, there has been a rapid growth of capital market, money market and financial services industry including merchant banking, leasing and venture capital, leasing, hire purchasing. Consistent with the growth of financial sector and second generation reforms its need to fruition of the financial sector. It also need to providing the efficient service to the investor mostly if the investors are supply small amount, in that point of view the mutual fund play vital for better service to the small investors. The main vision for the analysis for this study is to scrutinize the performance of five star rated mutual funds, given the weight of risk, return, and assets under management, net assets value, book value and price to earnings ratio.
WHAT IS MUTUAL FUND?
Mutual fund is the pool of the money, based on the trust who invests the savings of a number of investors who shares a common financial goal, like the capital appreciation and dividend earning. The money thus collected invested in capital market instruments such as shares, debenture, and foreign market. Investors invest money and get the units as per the unit value which we called as NAV (net assets value). Mutual fund is the most suitable investment for the common man as it offers an opportunity to invest in diversified portfolio management, good research team, professionally managed Indian stock as well as the foreign market, the main aim of the fund manager is to taking the scrip that have under value and future will rising, then fund manager sell out the stock. Fund manager concentration on risk – return trade off, where minimize the risk and maximize the return through diversification of the portfolio. The most common features of the mutual fund unit are low cost. The below I mention the how the transactions will done or working with mutual fund.
STRUCTURE OF MUTUAL FUND
Mutual funds have organization structure as per there Security Exchange Board of India guidelines, Security Exchange Board of India specifies authority and responsibility of Trustee and Asset Management Companies. The objective is to control, to promote, to regulate, to protect the investor’s right and efficient trading of units. Operation of Mutual fund start with investors saves their money on mutual fund, than Mutual Fund manager handling the funds and strategic investment on scrip. As per the objectives of particular scheme manager select script. Unit value will become high when fund manager investment policy generates the return on capital market. Unit return depends on fund return and efficient capital market. Also affects international capital market, liquidity and at last economic policy. Below the graph indicates how the process was going on to investors to earn returns. Mutual fund manager having high responsibility inside of return and how to minimize the risk. When fund provided high return with high risk, investors attract to invest more funds for same scheme.
The Mutual fund organization as per the SEBI norms needed for smoothing of activities of the companies and achieving the desired objectives. Transfer agent and custodian play role for dematerialization of the fund and unit holders hold the account statement, but custody of the unit is on particular Asset Management Company. Custodian holds all the fund units on dematerialization form. Sponsor had decided the responsibility of custodian when investor to purchase the fund and to sell the unit. Application forms, transaction slip and other requests received by transfer agent, middle men between investors and Assets Management Companies.
ORIGIN OF MUTUAL FUNDS IN INDIA:
The history of mutual funds dates backs to 19th century when it was introduced in Europe, in particular, Great Britain. Robert Fleming set up in 1968 the first investment trust called Foreign and Colonial Investment Trust which promised to manage the finances of the moneyed classes of Scotland by spreading the investment over a number of different stocks. This investment trust and other investments trusts which were subsequently set up in Britain and the US, resembled today’s close – ended mutual funds. The first mutual in the U.S., Massachustsettes investor’s Trust, was set up in March 1924.
The stock market crash in 1929, the Great Depression, and the outbreak of the Second World War slackened the pace of mutual fund industry, innovations in products and services increased the popularity of mutual funds in the 1990s and 1960s. The first international stock mutual fund was introduced in the U.S. in 1940. In 1976, the first tax – exempt municipal bond funds emerged and in 1979, the first money market mutual funds were created. The latest additions are the international bond fund in 1986 and arm funds in 1990. This industry witnessed substantial growth in the eighties and nineties when there was a significant increase in the number of mutual funds, schemes, assets, and shareholders. In the US, the mutual fund industry registered a ten – fold growth the eighties. Since 1996, mutual fund assets have exceeded bank deposits. The mutual fund industry and the banking industry virtually rival each other in size.
TYPES OF MUTUAL FUNDS:
Wide variety of Mutual Fund Schemes exists to cater to the needs such as financial position, risk tolerance and return expectations etc. The table below gives an overview into the existing types of schemes in the Industry.
- Open Ended Funds
- Close Ended Funds
- Interval Funds
By Investment Objective
- Growth Funds
- Income Funds
- Balanced Funds
- Money Market Fund
- Tax Saving Funds
- Special Funds
- Index Funds
- Sector Specific Fund
ADVANTAGES OF MUTUAL FUNDS:
Mutual funds have designed to provide maximum benefits to investors, and fund manager have research team to achieve schemes objective. Assets Management Company has different type of sector funds, which need to proper planning for strategic investment and to achieve the market return.
Mutual Funds invest in a well-diversified portfolio of securities which enables investor to hold a diversified investment portfolio (whether the amount of investment is big or small).
Fund manager undergoes through various research works and has better investment management skills which ensure higher returns to the investor than what he can manage on his own.
Investors acquire a diversified portfolio of securities even with a small investment in a Mutual Fund. The risk in a diversified portfolio is lesser than investing in merely 2 or 3 securities.
Low Transaction Costs
Due to the economies of scale (benefits of larger volumes), mutual funds pay lesser transaction costs. These benefits are passed on to the investors.
An investor may not be able to sell some of the shares held by him very easily and quickly, whereas units of a mutual fund are far more liquid.
Choice of Schemes
Mutual funds provide investors with various schemes with different investment objectives. Investors have the option of investing in a scheme having a correlation between its investment objectives and their own financial goals. These schemes further have different plans/options
Funds provide investors with updated information pertaining to the markets and the schemes. All material facts are disclosed to investors as required by the regulator.
Investors also benefit from the convenience and flexibility offered by Mutual Funds. Investors can switch their holdings from a debt scheme to an equity scheme and vice-versa. Option of systematic (at regular intervals) investment and withdrawal is also offered to the investors in most open-end schemes.
Mutual Fund industry is part of a well-regulated investment environment where the interests of the investors are protected by the regulator. All funds are registered with SEBI and complete transparency is forced.
DISADVANTAGES OF MUTUAL FUNDS
The mutual fund not just advantage of investor but also has disadvantages for the funds. The fund manager not always made profits but might creates loss for not properly managed. The fund have own strategy for investment to hold, to sell, to purchase unit at particular time period.
Costs Control Not in the Hands of an Investor
Investor has to pay investment management fees and fund distribution costs as a percentage of the value of his investments (as long as he holds the units), irrespective of the performance of the fund
No Customized Portfolios
The portfolio of securities in which a fund invests is a decision taken by the fund manager. Investors have no right to interfere in the decision making process of a fund manager, which some investors find as a constraint in achieving their financial objectives.
Difficulty in Selecting a Suitable Fund Scheme
Many investors find it difficult to select one option from the plethora of funds/schemes/plans available. For this, they may have to take advice from financial planners in order to invest in the right fund to achieve their objectives.
TAX PLANNING AND MUTUAL FUNDS:
Investors in India opt for the tax-saving mutual fund schemes for the simple reason that it helps them to save money. The tax-saving mutual funds or the equity-linked savings schemes (ELSS) receive certain tax exemptions under Section 88 of the Income Tax Act. That is one of the reasons why the investors in India add the tax-saving mutual fund schemes to their portfolio. The tax-saving mutual fund schemes are one of the important types of mutual funds in India that investors can option for. There are several companies in India that offer – tax – saving mutual fund schemes in the country.
SEBI REGULATIONS ON MUTUAL FUND: ( SEBI Regulation Act 1996 | Establishment of a Mutual Fund )
In India mutual fund play the role as investment with trust, some of the formalities laid down by the SEBI to be establishment for setting up a mutual fund. As the part of trustee sponsor the mutual fund, under the Indian Trust Act, 1882, under the trustee company are represented by a board of directors. Board of Directors is appoints the AMC and custodians. The board of trustees made relevant agreement with AMC and custodian. The launch of each scheme involves inviting the public to invest in it, through an offer documents.
Depending on the particular objective of scheme, it may open for further sale and repurchase of units, again in accordance with the particular of the scheme, the scheme may be wound up after the particular time period.
- The sponsor has to register the mutual fund with SEBI
- To be eligible to be a sponsor, the body corporate should have a sound track record and a general reputation of fairness and integrity in all his business transactions.
- The sponsor should hold at least 40% of the net worth of the AMC.
- A party which is not eligible to be a sponsor shall not hold 40% or more of the net worth of the AMC.
- The sponsor has to appoint the trustees, the AMC and the custodian.
- The trust deed and the appointment of the trustees have to be approved by SEBI.
- An AMC or its officers or employees cannot be appointed as trustees of the mutual fund.
- At least two thirds of the business should be independent of the sponsor.
- Only an independent trustee can be appointed as a trustee of more than one mutual fund, such appointment can be made only with the prior approval of the fund of which the person is already acting as a trustees.
Means of Sound Track Records
- The body corporate being in the financial services business for at least five years
- Having a positive net worth in the five years immediately preceding the application of registration.
- Net worth in the immediately preceding year more than its contribution to the capital of the AMC
- Earning a profit in the three out of the five preceding years, including the fifth year
LAUNCHING OF A SCHEMES
Before its launch, a scheme has to be approved by the trustees and a copy of its offer documents filed with the SEBI.
- Every application form for units of a scheme is to be accompanies by a memorandum containing key information about the scheme.
- The offer document needs to contain adequate information to enable the investors to make informed investments decisions.
- All advertisements for a scheme have to be submitted to SEBI within seven days from the issue date.
- The advertisements for a scheme have to disclose its investment objective.
- The offer documents and advertisements should not contain any misleading information or any incorrect statement or opinion.
- The initial offering period for any mutual fund schemes should not exceed 45 days, the only exception being the equity linked saving schemes.
- No advertisements can contain information whose accuracy is dependent on assumption.
- An advertisement cannot carry a comparison between two schemes unless the schemes are comparable and all the relevant information about the schemes is given.
- All advertisements need to carry the name of the sponsor, the trustees, the AMC of the fund.
- All advertisements need to disclose the risk factors.
- All advertisements shall clarify that investment in mutual funds is subject to market risk and the achievement of the fund’s objectives cannot be assured.
- When a scheme is open for subscription, no advertisement can be issued stating that the scheme has been subscribed or over subscription.
FOLLOWING ARE ASSET MANAGEMENT COMPANIES IN INDIA
- AEGON Asset Management Company Pvt. Ltd
- AIG Global Asset Management Company (India) Pvt. Ltd
- Axis Asset Management Company Ltd
- Baroda Pioneer Asset Management Company Limited
- Benchmark Asset Management Company Pvt. Ltd
- Bharti AXA Investment Managers Private Limited
- Birla Sun Life Asset Management Company Limited
- Canara Robeco Asset Management Company Limited
- DBS Cholamandalam Asset Management Ltd.
- Deutsche Asset Management (India) Pvt. Ltd
- DSP Black Rock Investment Managers Private Limited
- Edelweiss Asset Management Limited
- Escorts Asset Management Limited
- FIL Fund Management Private Limited
- Fortis Investment Management (India) Pvt. Ltd
- Franklin Templeton Asset Management (India) Private
- Goldman Sachs Asset Management (India)
- HDFC Asset Management Company Limited
- HSBC Asset Management (India) Private Ltd
- ICICI Prudential Asset Mgmt.Company Limited
- IDFC Asset Management Company Private LimiteD
- ING Investment Management (India) Pvt. Ltd
- JM Financial Asset Management Private Limited
- JPMorgan Asset Management India Pvt. Ltd
- LIC Mutual Fund Asset Management Company Limited
- Mirae Asset Global Investments (India) Pvt. Ltd
- Morgan Stanley Investment Management Pvt. Ltd
- Peerless Funds Management Co. Ltd
- Pnb Asset Management Co. Pvt. Ltd
- Quantum Asset Management Co. Private Ltd
- Reliance Capital Asset Management Ltd
- Religare Asset Management Company Limited
- Sahara Asset Management Company Private LimiteD
- SBI Funds Management Private Limited
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